I don’t know, why she was so emotional. When I look in to her eyes every time I see, I saw only the sparkles which does and does not mean anything. But all of a sudden……..why her eyes have become charmless. I am not in a position to ask her the reason for her sadness. Waiting for single message I have already spent half of my life, yes, It’s time to move on. There is a thing I have top learn all these stuffs that never get closer to anyone because even a smallest change in their behavior cause huge loss for the life itself. …
Drainage refers to the river system of an area. in terms of india,it has got many rivers underground rivers ect. the rivers varies from length size and volume but all the rivers has their own contribution in the field of irrigation,industrialization,settlements and economic development.
Indian drainage system can be broadly classified into two types-
- Himalayan rivers
- Peninsular rivers
himalayan rivers has their origin in himalayan mountains and they flow through out the year. in rainy season they get water from the rain where as in summer glacier melt into water and it joins rivers.
peninsular rivers usually flows in the southern part or peninsular part of india.their only soures of water is rainfall so many of the rivers get dried up in summer.usually they are shorter in length and lesser in volume compare to himalayan rivers .
pic courtesy: http://www.slideshare.net
India is a very rich country in terms of its culture tradition practice natural vegetation flora fauna and as well as the relief features.India has got many advantages from its location i,e longitudinal and latitudinal extension. It has covered from three sides of water which made India a peninsular country. Apart from these it has many physical features which have their own contribution in India. And we will read them one by one. Mainly India has been devide into major five physiographic divisions.
Physiographic divisions of India –
- The Great Himalayan Mountains
- Northern Plains
- Central Highland
- Indian desert
- Coastal Plains
- The Islands
I THE GREATER HIMALAYAS
Himalayas lies at the northern part of India, extends from Jammu&Kashmir in the west to Arunanchalpradesh in the east. it runs from west to east. Before going deep in to the study let us how the Himalayas have formed. Himalayas are also known as young fold mountains. Why do you think that they are named as “young and fold” mountains when not others mountains are not labeled as such?…………. As the name indicates Himalayas origin is comparatively young compared to other mountains and they are structurally folded. Himalayas formed only 50million years ago. India was a part of large island situated off the Australia coast and separated from Asia by Tethys sea in between. When Indian plate(tectonic plate) started to move northward it was checked by sea Tethys but gradually Indian plate started to move northward and collided with Eurasian plate Tethys sea has also gone up with the Himalaya’s solid mass. Thus Himalayas formed due to collision of Indian plate with the Eurasian plate. It is observed that even today Himalayan mountains are growing 1cm/year.
Himalayas have rugged topography and the are very rigid in nature. it has total length of 2400 km which runs from Jammu and Kashmir to Arunanchalpradesh. The width varies from west to east. In western part that is in Jammu and Kashmir the width is 400 km where as in eastern part that is in Arunanchalpradesh it is 50km.Classification of Himalayan mountain range-
1. PUNJAB HIMALAYAS
- 560 km long stretch between river Indus and sutluj
- large portiion lies in kashmir and himalachal pradesh thus it also called as kashmir and himachal himalaya
- Main ranges- Karakoram, ladakh, pirpanjal, zaskar and dhaola dhar.2. KUMAON HIMALAYAS
- it lies between kali and sutluj river
- it has total length of 320km
- elevation is high compared to punjab himalyas
- important peaks are- nanda devi(7,817 m), kamet(7,756 m) Trisul (7,140 m) Badrinath (7,138 m) Gangotri (6,510 m).
- the origin of sacred river Ganga and Yamuna also lies in kumaon himalayas
- nainital and bhimtal are important lakes 3. NEPAL HIMALAYAS
it lies between river kali and river tista
- most of the part lies in nepal thus it is called as nepal himalayas
- it has stretched over the length of 800km
- the highest peak of the world that is Mount Everest(8,850 m) also lies in this part
- other important peaks are- Kanchenjunga (8,598 m) Lhotse I (8,501 m) Makalu (8,481 m) Dhaula Giri (8,172 m) Annapurna (8,078 m)
- kathmandu is famous valley in this region
4. ASSAM HIMALAYAS
- it lies between river tista to river brahmaputra
- it has the total length of 750 km
- it spread over assam arunanchal pradesh and sikkim, elevation is lesser than the nepal himalayas
- important peaks are- namcha barva (7756 m) kula kangri (7554m)
(i) THE GREAT OR INNER HIMALAYAS OR HIMADRI:
- This is the northernmost range and is also known as ‘Himadri’.
- This is the most continuous range.
- It contains the loftiest peaks.
- The average height of peaks in this range is 6,000 meters.
- The folds of the Great Himalayas are irregular in nature.
- The core of this part is composed of granite.
- Because of the lofty heights, the peaks of this range are perennially covered with snow.
- Famous glaciers like the Siachen Glacier, the Gangotri and Yamunotri, etc.
(ii) THE LESSER HIMALAYA OR HIMACHAL:
- This range lies towards the south of the Great Himalayas.
- The altitude of peaks in this range varies from 3,700 to 4,500 meter.
- Average width of this range is 50 km.
- This range is mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks.
- The most important mountain range here is the Pir Panjal mountain range and it is the longest range.
- Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharat mountain ranges are also important ranges of lesser himalayas.
- All great valleys like Kashmir Valley, Kangra Valley, Kullu Valley are present here.
- This region is also known as for its hill stations (for e.g. Kullu,-Manali, Kufri, Shimla, Mussoorie, Nanital, etc.).
(iii) THE SHIWALIKS:
- The outermost range of the Himalayas is known as Shiwaliks, also known as Manak Parbat in ancient times.
- The altitude varies between 900 and 1100 meters in this range.
- The width varies between 10 to 50 km.
- These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by the rivers.
- The longitudinal valleys lying between the Himachal and Shiwaliks are called ‘Dun’major Duns found in this region are Dehra, kothri, patli and kota.II THE NORTHERN PLAIN OF INDIA:
- The northern plain of India is formed by three river systems, i.e. the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra; along with their tributaries.
- This plain is composed of alluvial soil which has been deposited over millions of years.
- The total area of the northern plain is about 7 lakh square kilometer.
- It is about 2400 km long.
- Width is about 240 to 320 km .
- Northern plains are most densely populated areas of the country.
- Here we find alluvial soil, thus making the plain very fertile and agriculturally very productive.
- Because of the three river systems, i.e. the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra; along with their tributaries, availability of water is there in abundance through the year.
- The rivers in their lower course split into numerous channels or streams due to the deposition of silt. These channels or streams are known as Distributaries.
- The northern plain is divided into three sections, i.e. the Punjab Plain, the Ganga Plain and the Brahmaputra Plain.
III THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU
- The peninsular plateau is a tableland which contains igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- It is composed of the oldest rocks because it was formed from the drifted part of the Gondwana land.
- Broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills are the characteristic features of this plateau.
- The plateau can be broadly divided into two regions, i.e. the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
- One of the important features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area which is known as the Deccan Trap.
- This black soil originated from the volcanic eruption. Thus, it has igneous rocks.
The Central Highlands:
- The Central Highlands lies to the north of the Narmada river.
- It covers the major portion of the Malwa plateau.
- North of Narmada river.
- Vindhya ranges in the South.
- Aravalis in the North West.
- Covers Malwa plateau, Bundelkhand , Baghelkhand and Chhotanagpur plateau.
- The rivers in this region flow from southwest to northeast (i.e. Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken, Son, etc.); which indicates the slope of this region.
- It is wider in the west and narrower in the east.
- Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand mark the eastward extension of this plateau.
- The plateau further extends eastwards into the Chhotanagpur plateau.
The Deccan Plateau:
- The Deccan Plateau lies to the south of the Naramada river.
- It is triangular in shape.
- The slope of the Deccan Plateau is from west to east.
- Most of the rivers flow from west to east.
- The Satpura range makes its northern part.
- The Mahadev, Kaimur Hills and Maikal range make its eastern part.
- It extends into the north east which encompasses Meghalaya, Karbi-Anglong Plateau and North Cachar Hills.
- Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills are the prominent ranges; starting from west to east.
Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats:
- Western Ghats stretch from the Tapi River to Kanayakumari. But The Eastern Ghats stretch from Mahanadi Valley to the Nilgiris in the south.
- Western Ghat’s average width is 50 to 80 km. But Eastern Ghat’s width varying from 100 to 200 km.
- Western Ghats is source of many large rivers But no big river originates from the Eastern Ghats.
- Western Ghats are continuous and can be crossed through passes only. But Eastern Ghats has been divided into several parts by large rivers.
- Western Ghats average elevation is 900 to 1,600 meters But the average elevation of Eastern Ghats is about 600 metres above sea level.
- Highest Peak of Western Ghats: Anai Mudi (2695 meters).
- Highest Peak of Eastern Ghats: Mahendragiri (1501 meters).
- Western ghats receives orographic type of rainfallal. South-west monsoons coming from the Arabian Sea and causes heavy rainfall. Eastern Ghats is almost parallel to the monsoons coming from the Bay of Bengal and does not cause much rainfall.
IV THE INDIAN DESERT:
- The Indian desert is also known as the Thar Desert.
- The Indian desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills.
- This region gets very less rainfall which is less than 150 mm in a year.
- The climate is dry and vegetation is found is very less.
- Luni is the only large river but some streams appear during rainy season.
- Kindly note: The Luni is a river of western Rajasthan. It originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli Range, near Ajmer and ends in the marshy lands of Ran of Kutch in Gujarat.
- Crescent-shaped dunes (barchans) are found in this area.
V. THE COASTAL PLAINS OF INDIA:
- The Western Coastal Plains is a thin strip of coastal plain with a width of 50 kms between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats.
- It is divided into three sections. The Konkan; (Mumbai – Goa) in the north. The Kannada Plain makes the central part and the Malabar coast stretches in the south.
- The Eastern Coastal Plains is a strip of coastal plain with a width of 100 – 130 kms between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Ghats
- It is divided into two parts. The northern part is called Northern Circar. The southern part is called the Coromandel Coast.
- Extensive deltas are formed by large rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
- Chilika lake is an important feature along the eastern coast. It is the largest salt water lake in India.
VI THE ISLANDS OF INDIA
- The Lakshadweep Islands covers an area of 32 sq kms. It got its name in the year 1973.
- The administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep is at Kavaratti Island.
- This group of islands is composed of small coral islands.
- This group of islands is rich in terms of biodiversity (flora & fauna).
- The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are located in the Bay of Bengal.
- These islands are bigger in size and has more number of islands.
- This group of islands can be divided into two groups. The Andaman is in the north and the Nicobar is in the south.
- These islands are located close to equator and thus, experience equatorial type of climate and also have thick forest cover.
- These islands too have rich biodiversity (flora & fauna).